Fire Hydrants & Sprinklers

The automatic Sprinkler system / fire Hydrant system shall be designed to extinguish a fire in its early stages by the use of water and simultaneously sounding an alarm to someone help . Pipe work fitted with sprinklers at regular intervals is connected to a reliable water supply. Each sprinkler is an automatic heat sensitive valve , which opens independently in the event of fire to discharge water on to the seat of the outbreak . Only the sprinkler or sprinklers affected by fire operate , and the opening of any one sprinkler to firefight.

Generally the sprinkler system shall be provided in basement floor , Air Conditional Areas . The sprinkler heads are to be fixed in to M/S or GI pipes of sizes 25mm to 100mm to suit the hydraulics of the system and confirming to the guidelines , The entire piping system shall be capable of withstanding test pressure of 15Kg/sq cm. Piping shall be done by means of threaded joints up to 50 mm dia, For sprinkler system piping attached to structural members of the building suitable type of hangers of steel bars , angles , or threaded steel pipe painted with synthetic enamel paint shall strictly provided , Due care shall be taken that sprinkler heads are not applied with paint at the time of painting the pipe and fittings .

To prevent casual use or misuse , the hydrant requires special tools to be opened , usually a large wrench with a pentagon-shaped socket . Vandals sometimes cause monetary loss by wasting water when they open hydrants . Such vandalism can also reduce municipal water pressure and impair firefighters efforts to extinguish fires . Sometimes those simply seeking to play in the water remove the caps and open the valve , providing residents a place to play and cool off in summer , However , this is usually discouraged as residents have been struck by passing automobiles while playing in the street in the water spray . In spite of this , some India provide low flow sprinkler heads to enable residents to use the hydrants to cool off during hot weather , while gaining some control on water usage . Most fire hydrants in India are protected by a silver-colored cover with a red top , secured to the ground with bolts to protect the hydrant from vandalism and unauthorized use . The cover must be removed before use .

The user attaches a hose to the fire hydrant , then opens a valve on the hydrant to provide a powerful flow of water , on the order of 350 kPa (50 lbf/in²) (this pressure varies according to region and depends on various factors including the size and location of the attached water main) , This user can attach this hose to a fire engine , which can use a powerful pump to boost the water pressure and possibly split it into multiple streams , One may connect the hose with a threaded connection , instantaneous "quick connector" , A user should take care not to open or close a fire hydrant too quickly , as this can cause a water hammer , which can damage nearby pipes and equipment , The water inside a charged hose line causes it to be very heavy and high water pressure causes it to be stiff and unable to make a tight turn while pressurized , When a fire hydrant is unobstructed , this is not a problem , as there is enough room to adequately position the hose.

Most fire hydrant valves are not designed to throttle the water flow , they are designed to be operated full-on or full-off , The valve arrangement of most dry-barrel hydrants is for the drain valve to be open at anything other than full operation , Usage at partial-opening can consequently result in considerable flow directly into the soil surrounding the hydrant , which over time , can cause severe scouring , Gate or butterfly valves can be installed directly onto the hydrant orifices to control individual outputs and allow for changing equipment connections without turning off the flow to other orifices , These valves can be up to 12 inches in diameter to accommodate the large central "steamer" orifices on many US hydrants. It is good practice to install valves on all orifices before using a hydrant as the protective caps are unreliable and can cause major injury if they fail .